Home Finance Integration of terrestrial-NTN system key to 5G service continuity

Integration of terrestrial-NTN system key to 5G service continuity

It’s predicted that by the tip of 2024, smartphones will eat greater than 21 GB knowledge per 30 days per telephone and generate 95 per cent of whole cell knowledge site visitors. On this context, offering desired high quality of service anytime wherever, even when travelling in excessive velocity trains, aeroplanes and ships is a problem for future telecom techniques.

5G telecom techniques are anticipated to ship companies wherever and anytime. 5G built-in with Non Terrestrial Community (NTN) Programs, particularly satellite tv for pc techniques, are capable of fulfill this requirement and provide vast space protection, availability, continuity and scalability. These techniques are referred to as 5G-NTN. 5G-NTN additionally ensures service continuity of machine to machine and IOT (Web of Issues) units and repair availability for essential communications.

Totally different NTN platforms

The NTN platforms are grouped into two most important classes: Spaceborne and airborne.

Spaceborne platforms

1. Geo Earth Orbit (GEO) or Geostationary Orbit (GSO): This orbit is at an altitude of 36,000 km from the floor of earth. The satellite tv for pc positioned at GEO, revolves across the earth from east to west on the similar velocity at which earth rotates round itself (24 hrs). It seems as fastened within the sky for the earth station. So monitoring the satellite tv for pc by earth station antenna is simple. A whole bunch of GEO satellites are in orbit right this moment launched by totally different international locations (with separation as little as 0.5 diploma). Giant protection is among the benefits of GEO satellites and theoretically three satellites are sufficient to cowl all the world. The GEO beam footprint measurement is 200 to three,500 km. The sign utilizing the GEO satellite tv for pc has a latency of about 240 milliseconds. Spherical journey delay is about 480 milliseconds. Lifetime of a GEO satellite tv for pc is 10-15 years. Its launch price is excessive.

2. Medium Earth Orbit (MEO): A MEO satellite tv for pc shall be at an altitude of 8,000 to 18,000 km above the floor of earth. It has a round orbit and rotation interval is 2 to eight hours. 100-150 satellites are required to cowl all the world. Its lifetime is 10-15 years and launch price is reasonable. MEO beam footprint measurement is 100 to 1000 km.

3. Low Earth Orbit (LEO): A LEO satellite tv for pc shall be at an altitude of lower than 2,000 Km. It has a round orbit and orbital interval is 10 to 40 minutes. LEO beam footprint measurement is 100 to 1000 km. Low latency (20 ms), excessive capability and low launch price are its enticing options. Nevertheless, tons of of satellites are required to cowl the world, and its monitoring is advanced. One other drawback is that its lifetime is simply 5 years.

LEO satellites and MEO satellites are also called Non-GEO (NGSO) satellites.

The airborne class consists of Unmanned Plane Programs (UAS) platforms that are positioned at an altitude between 8 and 50 km and embody Excessive Altitude Platform Programs (HAPS) at 20 km altitude.

Spaceborne and airborne platforms may be of clear payload configuration or regenerative payload configuration. Within the first configuration, radio frequency filtering, frequency conversion (as uplink and downlink frequencies are totally different) and amplification are finished onboard the satellite tv for pc or UAS platform. Within the regenerative payload configuration, the NTN platform implements gNB (5G base station) features on board.

5G NTN use circumstances

5G NTN can discover functions in transport, well being, power, automotive and public security sectors. 5G use circumstances may be categorised as

1. Service continuity: To supply companies which aren’t possible by terrestrial networks like in distant, hilly, rural areas and islands.

2. Service ubiquity: To enhance community availability in circumstances of disasters that result in momentary outage of terrestrial community.

3. Service scalability: To off load site visitors from terrestrial networks throughout busy hours.

NTN helps

1. e MBB (enhanced Cellular Broadband): Offering Broadband connectivity in unserved/underserved areas and on transferring platforms (vessels and aircrafts) and offering community resilience by combining terrestrial and NTN techniques. NTN will also be used to off load the terrestrial community by making a broadcast channel accessible to ship broadcast/ multicast content material or vast/native space public security messages at hand held or automobile mounted Consumer Equipments (UEs) or transferring platforms

2. m MTC ( large Machine Sort Communications): NTN helps connectivity for each vast and native space IOTs.

u RLLC (extremely Dependable Low Latency Communications) is a problem in NTN as a consequence of larger satellite tv for pc propagation delay.

The important thing use circumstances of NTN are options for maritime situations. Provision of in-sea protection is just not possible utilizing terrestrial networks. NTN is beneficial for maritime situations by offering seamless sea telecom companies to units and customers with seaborne platforms.

The combination of NTN and terrestrial networks is crucial to ensure service continuity and scalability in 5G and past techniques. An built-in terrestrial-NTN system could provide advantages in city and rural areas. It offers connectivity assure at stadiums, procuring malls and for customers travelling in excessive velocity trains, in air planes and ships.

The NTN section, when built-in with the terrestrial community, achieves international protection due to boosting capability (on account of excessive frequency reuse and precoding methods) and ensures service continuity even when travelling.

GEO Excessive Throughput Satellite tv for pc (HTS) and LEO satellite tv for pc mega- constellations would be the focus of consideration for 5G-NTN. GEO HTSs with excessive knowledge charges facilitate the supply of eMBB companies and LEOs assist low latency 5G companies (uRLLC). The ideas of community slicing (which ensures scalability, availability and useful resource optimisation because of the provision of particular community capabilities with a logical community, customised primarily based on service necessities) and edge computing (shifting computing and storage assets nearer to consumer, resulting in decrease latency) that are adopted in 5G terrestrial networks (in Stand Alone mode) are additionally adopted in 5G satellite tv for pc networks.

A typical 5G- NTN structure is depicted under:

Right here 5GC is 5G core, NG is Subsequent Era RAN (Radio Entry Community), gNB is Subsequent Era Node B (which is the basestation of 5G), Uu is the interface between base station and Consumer Tools and UE is Consumer Tools

Manner ahead

Satellite tv for pc hyperlinks are getting used as backhaul the place laying optical fibre for backhaul is just not possible. Additionally there’s rising curiosity to combine satellite tv for pc and terrestrial community infrastructure in relation to 5G. The combination of 5G with NTN goes by a collection of technological developments and shortly satellites shall be part of the 5G ecosystem. The potential position of satellites to enrich terrestrial 5G companies has been recognized throughout 3GPP (third Era Partnership Undertaking) Launch-15 and Launch-16. Now 3GPP has finalised specs for the mixing of 5G with satellites (5G-NTN) within the 3GPP release-17 which is frozen throughout March 22. There are a whole lot of adjustments that must be carried out in each the protocol and {hardware} stack for which analysis on each core and RAN of 5G together with NTN (Satellite tv for pc) must be finished. Mobility administration, propagation delay administration and radio useful resource administration of satellites are the primary points on which analysis must be focussed.

• Mobility administration

Because the velocity of movement of the NGSO satellite tv for pc and Consumer Tools (UE) across the earth are totally different, it yields a time various NGSO channel. The dynamic nature of the NGSO satellite tv for pc hyperlink has an affect on handover and paging procedures.

• Propagation delay administration

The propagation delay of satellites impacts system efficiency and is the primary problem for uRLLC functions and for public security functions. It must be researched how you can deal with channel variations as a consequence of propagation delay and guarantee service continuity.

• Radio useful resource administration

1. The spot beam expertise in HTS offers improved capability. Environment friendly frequency reuse is required to keep away from interference between adjoining beams.

2. The combination of NTN with the 5G terrestrial system can be utilized to off load terrestrial site visitors. Radio assets must be allotted effectively to restrict the interference between the satellite tv for pc and gNBs.

(The writer is a former Advisor, Division of Telecommunications (DoT), Authorities of India)

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